Art and Culture in Europe - part 5

Art and Culture in Europe - part 5

Apart from excelling in the field of art and cuisine, European people have been known to have the best scientists and inventors in the world. These scientists have made groundbreaking inventions in the field of science and technology and they are what scholars read about today. Europe has affair share of famous scientists who are renowned all over the world. These are people who forever changed the world as we see it with their discoveries and their thoughts and works are greatly valued. Some of these scientists include: 

Albert Einstein
There is no doubt that Albert Einstein is one of the greatest physicists and mathematician of all time. He also developed the theory of relativity, which is the basis for modern physics studies. Though born in Germany, Einstein died a citizen of the United States, where he visited in 1936. This is because he never went back to Germany after Hitler rose to power that year.
He is renowned for his equation, E=mc2, which has been dubbed the world’s most famous equation. He was a strong supporter of Newtonian laws and based his mathematical and physics principles on them. Einstein has several false theories spread about him, one being that he had speech problems when he was a small child. Archives have proven this to be wrong. They also said that he was left handed, but his early writings appear to have been from a right hand. 

Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton is the father of classical mechanics because his first books, the mathematical principles of natural philosophy, published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of the present studies in physics and mathematics. Born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1642, Newton grew up as a single parent child after his father died just three months to his birth. This did not last long because his mother remarried, and he was raised by his maternal grandmother most of his life. He was a genius in matters calculus and even developed a theory with a much older student in his school, Leibniz.
They however got into a dispute over who owned the rights to the theory, which some people claim they had developed simultaneously but very independently. He also did a great deal of work with optics, and the Newton theory of colors states that objects only gain color as a result of reflecting on already colored light rays. His later works include mechanics and gravitation, where he is credited with the Newtonian Universal Law of Gravitation and the three Newtonian laws of motion.

Leonardo da Vinci
Apart from being a famous painter, the Italian born scientist and mathematician also had several discoveries to make. He was claimed to have unquenchable curiosity and his fervor to invent things was unmatched. This can be proved by the various field of work in which he engaged in. Not only was he a painter and a polymath but he also involved himself in botany, sculpturing and architecture and other works too. He is famed to have conceptualized how a helicopter could work, solar energy, a tank and a calculator.
Although not much of his early life is known, he was given an informal education in Latin, mathematics and geometry. This ultimately shaped the best scientist in European history because he was able to develop many things including a rudimentary theory on plate tectonics. Most of his discoveries were never published and did not have any bearing on his discoveries later in life. In his later life, Da Vinci is more famed for his art than for his science. He was a known apprentice of the famous painter, Donatello. His works are famous the world over and include The Last Supper and The Baptism of Christ. 

Charles Darwin
Born in Shropshire, United Kingdom in 1809, Darwin was a naturalist and his theory of natural selection brought him fame as it did brew controversy. He is the first person to have come up with the theory of evolution, which stated that every species on earth rose from one original species, which evolved into many creatures. He studied medicine in the University of Edinburgh, but he mostly neglected his medical studies in favor of zoology. He helped in the investigation of marine invertebrates.
When he went for an ordinary Bachelor of Arts at the Cambridge University, his passion for natural arts was further developed. After this he took a five-year voyage on the vessel HMS Beagle, during which he demonstrated skills both as a naturalist and a geologist. All through his voyage, he kept a keen eye and wrote tons of geological letters, that people back in England so enjoyed reading. This gave birth to his theory of evolution, which came soon after the voyage. He has been described as one of the most influential human beings and he was buried at Westminster Abbey, next to Isaac Newton.

Louis Pasteur
He was one of the most renowned microbiologist and chemist. He was born in France in 1822 and in his lifetime made several groundbreaking inventions in medicinal microbiology. He is credited with the creation of the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax, which had been killing thousands in epidemics at the time. His method of treating milk and wine to prevent sickness was named after him, as pasteurization. He worked most of the time from Paris. He is also credited for certain chemistry theories, mainly the asymmetry of certain crystals. He was a skilled painter and drawer from an early age, but his later life shows more leanings on science.
He demonstrated that fermentation is caused by growth of micro-organisms and he also proposed the germ theory. These are just some of the best scientific minds that Europe has produced. There are scores of more including Galileo Galilei, Niels Bohr, Michael Faraday and Nicolaus Copernicus. There is no doubt that good scientific studies are part of the European culture as much as painting and good cuisine is. The science spirit lives on and institutions such as the European organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the European Space Agency are heavily funded, and they continue to produce life changing discoveries by young scientists.


Back from Art and Culture in Europe part 5 to
Art and Culture in Europe part 4 - Index or
Site Map






Heritage & Future